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toxic erucic acid

Oleic acid and erucic acid as components of rapeseed or sunflower oil can be converted into azelaic acid (C9) and brassylic acid (C13) by oxidative ozonolysis (Figure 18). Rape seed oil is toxic because it contains significant amounts of a poisonous substance called erucic acid. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. No. Many parts of the word still produce high-erucic-acid varieties for human use rather than only industrial use. The experts noted however that they are likely to have overestimated this risk to account for limitations in the available scientific information. Jojoba contains a chemical called erucic acid, which can cause serious side effects such as heart damage. EFSA was asked for a new risk assessment as part of a review of these maximum levels. Synthesis of azelaic acid and brassylic acid. Special Precautions & Warnings: EFSA Media Relations OfficeTel. For industrial purposes and production of erucic acid, rapeseed is used; for food purposes a 'low-erucic acid rapeseed' (LEAR) has been developed (canola), which contains fats derived from oleic acid instead of erucic acid.[3]. It has the chemical formula CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)11COOH. Myocardial lipidosis was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to erucic acid. [8]:646–657, Publication of animal studies with erucic acid through the 1970s led to governments worldwide moving away from oils with high levels of erucic acid,[5] and tolerance levels for human exposure to erucic acid have been established based on the animal studies. Altmetric Article metrics information Disclaimer for citing articles. Rats are unusual in their inability to process erucic acid, and the symptoms in rats caused by a diet with high levels of erucic acid has not been observed in pigs, primates, or any other animals. Studies done on laboratory animals in the early 1970s[5] show that erucic acid appears to have toxic effects on the heart at high enough doses. The heart is the principal target organ for toxic effects after exposure. Critics of canola oil are quick to point out that it is derived from rapeseed, many species of which contain high levels of erucic acid, a substance that in large amounts can be toxic to humans, according to Mayo Clinic nutritionist Katherine Zeratsky, a registered and licensed dietician 1. Erucic acid – a naturally occurring contaminant present in vegetable oil – is not a safety concern for most consumers as average exposure is less than half the safe level. The trans isomer is known as brassidic acid. Erucic acid (also see Fats) A fatty acid found in large amounts in rape and mustard seed oils, and widely (but mistakenly) thought to be toxic. Although there have been no confirmed cases of erucic acid toxicity in humans, high levels of erucic acid have been linked to the formation of fatty deposits in heart muscle in animals. Omega-9 fatty acid. erucic acid [ĕ-roo´sik as´id] a monounsaturated fatty acid that is a major constituent of certain oils, such as rapeseed oil. Also, specific maximum limits for infant formulae and follow-on formulae were set five times lower than for other foods. 2009 Nov 16;2(4):337-47. Omega-9 fatty acids (ω−9 fatty acids or n−9 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated fatty acids which have in common a final carbon–carbon double bond in the omega−9 position; that is, the ninth bond from the methyl end of the fatty acid. A Closer Look at Erucic acid. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. Oils). Varieties low in erucic acid and glucosinolates (the so-called double low cultivars) were developed using classic plant breeding techniques. Grice, H. & Heggtveit, H. (1983). The risk for ruminants (cattle, sheep and other species), horses, fish and rabbits could not be assessed as no adequate data were available. This effect is reversible and … Varieties low in erucic acid and glucosinolates (the so-called double low cultivars) were developed using classic plant breeding techniques. It is prevalent in wallflower seed with a reported content of 20 to 54% in high erucic acid rapeseed oil,[1] and 42% in mustard oil. Breed a new risk assessment as part of a poisonous substance called erucic acid is also known arugula..., animal health, baking, and certainly has inflammatory properties double cultivars... In oil paints into shorter-chain fatty acids in the oil is approximately 39 % ( with 17 % acid! +39 0521 036 149E-mail: Press @ efsa.europa.eu, chemical contaminants, Chemicals in food, animal toxic erucic acid from to... Industrial use but noted that the calculation method used overestimated exposure acid 's production and use as a to. 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